While there are plenty of weight loss diets out there in the health and fitness circuit, one diet that is gaining popularity across the world is Paleo diet. According to a recent study, published in the 'European Journal of Nutrition', people who follow paleo diet may be at an increased risk of heart diseases. Paleo diet or Caveman diet is said to include consumption of vegetables, meat, nuts and limited fruits and excludes consumption of dairy, salt, refined sugar, legumes, grains and processed oils. The research compared 44 people on the diet with 47 following a traditional Australian diet, wherein the researchers then analysed the impact of the diet on gut bacteria.
Other than this, the researchers also measured the amount of trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in participants' blood. TMAO is an organic compound produced in the gut.
As per the findings of the study, people who follow paleo diet were found to have twice the amount of the key blood biomarker, which is closely associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
The lead researcher of the study, Dr Angela Genoni said that it was essential to understand the impact of the diet on one's overall health due to its growing popularity.
"Many Paleo diet proponents claim the diet is beneficial to gut health, but this research suggests that when it comes to the production of TMAO in the gut, the Paleo diet could be having an adverse impact in terms of heart health," she said.
"We also found that populations of beneficial bacterial species were lower in the Paleolithic groups, associated with the reduced carbohydrate intake, which may have consequences for other chronic diseases over the long term."
She said the reason TMAO was so elevated in people on the Paleo diet appeared to be the lack of whole grains in their diet.
"We found the lack of whole grains were associated with TMAO levels, which may provide a link between the reduced risks of cardiovascular disease we see in populations with high intakes of whole grains," she said.
Higher concentrations of the bacteria that produce TMAO were also found by the researchers in the Paleo group.
"The Paleo diet excludes all grains and we know that whole grains are a fantastic source of resistant starch and many other fermentable fibres that are vital to the health of your gut microbiome," Dr Genoni said.
"Because TMAO is produced in the gut, a lack of whole grains might change the populations of bacteria enough to enable higher production of this compound.
"Additionally, the Paleo diet includes greater servings per day of red meat, which provides the precursor compounds to produce TMAO, and Paleo followers consumed twice the recommended level of saturated fats, which is cause for concern," she said.